Jazyk a politika.
Na pomedzí lingvistiky a politológie logo Medzinárodná vedecká konferencia
Fakulty aplikovaných jazykov Ekonomickej univerzity v Bratislave
Silvia Adamcová: Metafory a ich zastúpenie v diskurze o utečencoch
The Role of Metaphors in the Refugee Discourse.The article sheds light on the role of metaphors in political discourse and points out their important role in communication. In the area of the refugee discourse, taboo topics are often addressed that have not previously been discussed. Based on what has been said, the central term “discourse” also takes into account the explosive nature of political language.
Keywords: discourse, asylum seeker, political discourse, metaphor.
Beáta Biliková: Discursive Reflections of the 2021 Biden-Putin Summit in the Presidents‘ Press-Conferences
The paper focuses on the press-conferences of the US President Joe Biden and the Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin which took place in conclusion of the summit of the two presidents in Geneva, Switzerland on June 16, 2021. Employing the methods of textual, discursive, and comparative analyses, it explores the ways in which both presidents construe their representations of the summit as well as representations of themselves. The analysis also pays attention to the communication strategies selected by Putin and Biden, aimed at eliciting specific desired effects.
Keywords: discourse, narrative, communication strategy, re/construction of events
Nina Cingerová: Tematická štruktúra výpovede ako súčasť politolingvistickej analýzy
Thematic Structure of Utterance as a Part of Political Linguistic Analysis. In this article we point out the importance of thematic analysis of statements produced in political discourse. Based on examples we emphasize that the analysis at the level of word, phrase, or sentence seems to be insufficient and for a comprehensive grasp of the pragmatic effect it is important to focus on the ways of topics „organization“ within one discourse fragment and the way of their development - expansion.
Keywords: political discourse, topic, text, text linguistics.
Maxim Duleba: On language and ideology in Joachim Ringelnatz’s Turngedichte
In stark contrast to Joachim Ringelnatz’s (1883–1934) popularity, his works received only little scholarly attention, since the stereotypical views of Ringelnatz as an apolitical “entertainer” who does not engage in social and political discourses of his time entrenched the literary historiography. Challenging the stereotypical views, the article assembles Ringelnatz’s subtle political statement on linguistic nationalism within his poetry collection Turngedichte (1920): Ringelnatz refers to the influential proponents of linguistic nationalism and analogously defamiliarizes and ridicules their nationalist rhetoric by parodic recontextualization.
Keywords: Joachim Ringelnatz, Turngedichte, linguistic nationalism, language, critique of ideology.
Irina Dulebová: Metaforizácia vakcinácie pri jej sekuritizácii v slovenskom politickom diskurze
The Metaphorization of Vaccination in the Process of its Securitization in Slovak Political Discourse. In this paper, based on the example of the speeches of Slovak left-wing politician L. Blaha, we analyze how the precisely chosen impressive metaphors contribute to the act of a well-thought-out securitization of the vaccination process in Slovakia. The act of securitization as a speech act creates new meanings and is also able to trigger certain social dynamics. We point out how a speech act using metaphors creates a sense of threat concerning referential objects. In the utterances of L. Blaha, the actor of securitization, such abstract concepts as democratic values of Slovak society, the rule of law, civil rights, and public health are mostly presented as the referential objects threatened by "compulsory vaccination".
Michaela Fikejzová – Martin Charvát: Případová analýza mediální reprezentace trans* osob v české politické komunikaci
In the presented text we try to outline the ways, how trans* people are stereotyped and labelled within the Czech media and political communication. We rely mainly on the discourse regarding Miloš Zeman’s television appearance, where he labelled trans* people as “disgusting“ and then we trace back similiar statements made by other political actors. We try to pinpoint the main discourse nodes, where trans* people are stereotyped, victimized and most importantly dehumanized on the basis of being labelled “abnormal“, ”freakish“ or “nature-defying“
Keywords: media representation, trans*, political communication, normativity, dehumanization.
Zuzana Gašová: Stopy politiky v jazykovej krajine Bratislavy
Traces of Politics in the Linguistic Landscape of Bratislava. The aim of this article is to answer the question of in what ways and to what extent politics is present in the linguistic landscape of Bratislava. For this purpose, a categorization of possible meanings of the term politics was created, taking into account the specifics of the researched issues. Such categorization, in confrontation with the documented material, forms the basis for detecting traces of politics in the examined linguistic landscape and at the same time allows (a) reassessment of the first impression that the Bratislava linguistic landscape bears only a vague influence of politics and (b) outlines prospects for further research.
Keywords: Linguistic Landscape, Politics, Bratislava, Sign.
Ľubomír Guzi: Jazyková osobnosť politika – historická skúsenosť na rozhraní autora textu a politického praktika
Linguistic Identity of Politician – Historical Experience at the Interface between the Author of a Text and a Political Practitioner. In our paper, we analyze the linguistic personality of a well-known political representative – we give his characteristics based on an analysis of the production and using of texts created by him on various levels. We draw on the characteristics of language identity, which was defined in the Russian philological environment and focuses on obtaining data on prominent language personalities who produce the most quantitatively and qualitatively valuable texts, reflecting the way of life in this textological, de facto language production. With the methodical procedures of such an analysis we focus not only on artistic writing, but on finding typical features of statements and characteristics of linguistic identities of important politicians who left textual creation at the interface of political writing and writer's activities - we analyze and compare linguistic personalities of V. I. Lenin, L. D. Trotsky, in part, J. V. Stalin (who did not leave valuable texts in written form) and W. S. Churchill, who also moved significantly between literary production and political pragmatism, effectively complemented the role of politics with elaborate rhetorical speeches and writing, which even earned him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Keywords: linguistic identity, historical figure, writer, Russian and English history, political science.
Milen Helmová: Pandémia koronavírusu a prejavy verbálnej nenávisti v jazyku politiky
Corona Pandemic and Hate Expressions in the Language of Politics. The appearance and spread of corona virus mobilised people to initiate various discussions, moods, statements and reactions. Despite the Slovak society`s prompt reaction to global pandemic by introducing and maintaining strict restrictive measures, many politicians, in their struggle against it, founded their rhetoric on prejudice and stereotypes rooted in the society. The aim of the text is to research the expressions they used.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, language of politics, statement of political leadership, verbal hatrend.
Petra Hirtlová: Opice, dezoláti a antivaxeri. Vyjadrovacie prostriedky politikov v čase pandémie
Monkeys, Hooligans and Anti-Vaxxers. Statements by Politicians during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic has hit society at many levels. Many anti-pandemic measures and personal attitudes can provoke strong emotional reactions in society. The way in which contemporary reality is communicated through the means of expression also contributes to the polarisation of society. This paper focuses on the reflection of this unprecedented situation in the vocabulary of the actors of political and public life.
Keywords: prime minister, Facebook, communication, vulgarism, pandemic.
Lucia Chudá: Aktualizácia precedentnej výpovede „hranica Ruska sa nikde nekončí” v politickom diskurze
The Update of the Precedent Statement “Russia's Border Does Not End Anywhere” in the Political Discourse. The article deals with the updating of the precedent statement "Russia's border does not end anywhere", said by the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, during the awards ceremony for schoolchildren in November 2016. We focus both on analysing the dominant functions of selected updates and their potential to influence the Russian language image of the world and on the transformation of these fragments of the Russian political discourse.
Keywords: precedent phenomenon, precedent statement, political discourse, political media discourse, language picture of the world.
Robert Ištok – Klaudia Bednárová-Gibová: Rethinking the Concept of a Dysfunctional State: Semantic & Geopolitical Encounters and Interactions
This paper centres on the issue of terminology connected with the designation of states, which are going through a process of decline or complete failure. The decline of states has been presented in detail in secondary literature since the 1990s. The development of research on this phenomenon is, however, associated with terminological chaos. Drawing on semantic and geopolitical interpretative insights, the authors of the paper propose the term ‘dysfunctional state’, which may be used to overcome the chaos. The article also analyses more broadly the issue of a ‘failed state’ as the most frequent term used for countries that can be classified as dysfunctional.
Key words: terminology, dysfunctional state, failed state, semantics, geopolitics.
Katarína Jalová: Precedentné fenomény v idiolekte ruských politikov
Precedent Phenomena in the Idiolect of Russian Politicians. The Russian language is rich in the use of various phraseologisms (idioms), metaphors, but especially precedent phenomena. Even the leading Russian politicians are not exceptions and they often reach for quotes from popular Russian literary figures in their speeches. The aim of the article is to analyze the media output of selected Russian politicians (V. Putin, D. Medvedev, S. Lavrov), which contains references to a well known literary figure or a quote from a literary work. The analysis will be performed in terms of the functions of precedent phenomena in the speech strategy of politicians, as well as the selection of precedent phenomena used.
Keywords: idiolect, Russian politicians, speech strategy, precedent phenomena, functions of precedent phenomena.
Jana Javorčíková: Clinton, Bush, Obama, Trump, Biden: Political Rhetoric of Inaugural Addresses
The study presented herewith, entitled Clinton, Bush, Obama, Trump, Biden: Political Rhetoric in Inaugural Addresses, shows the results of linguistic and cultural research of the political discourse used in inaugural addresses of five recent US presidents and the political rhetoric they used to comment on “sensitive” and controversial issues, related to their political opponents. The author focuses on the specific use of modifying linguistic devices (PC language, dysphemisms and euphemisms) and also refers to other linguistic devices, neutralizing expressions, related to ethnic, religious, sexual and other phenomena. Special attention was paid to the euphemistic role of the pronoun “some”. The research by Zhao and Dong (2010) and Crespo-Fernández (2018) served as a theoretical framework on euphemisms as the basis for analysis; a comparative analysis and discourse analysis, as well as political and historical research, have been selected and the research methods. As a result of the research, the authors arrived at formulating a new principle in the use of the indefinite pronoun “some” in political speech aiming at easing tensions and harmonizing the divided society. Further attention was paid to the political affiliation of the US presidents and their view of domestic and international policy that affect their linguistic devices, and add to the iconicity of their speeches.
Keywords: discourse analysis, euphemism, inaugural address, PC, political correctness, US presidency.
Ivana Kapráliková: Abbreviations and their Ambiguity in Euro-Texts
EU English is becoming an especially important field within various types of research mostly on English for Specific Purposes with overwhelming quantity of reference materials published in English, which will require proper comprehension and precise translation. Our paper focuses on the outcomes of our own conducted research on shortening processes occuring in the euro-texts. Tendencies and irregularities as the most remarkable characteristics of shortening processes in the EU corpus are presented, pointing out the fact that many of those linguistic features could cause ambiguity in comprehension of the texts.
Keywords: euro-texts, abbreviations, ambiguity, EU Publications, corpus.
Andrej Kiner – Patrik Kozár: Migrant and refugee: person, worker or Muslim? Perception of migration in Slovakia
Humans are considered a migratory species. The issue of migration is currently receiving a lot of attention - whether at regional, national or global level. It is currently a source of disagreement between people and political elites and is often discussed by the media, which deal with terms such as migrant or refugee. We consider these terms to be neutral in their inner essence, but they often evoke negative feelings. Therefore, in this article we want to find out what connotations the inhabitants of Slovakia attribute to this term. Our findings show that these are mainly feelings of dismay, incertitude and respect for the unknown. When dealing with refugees, the connotations are identical, but people begin to show feelings of sympathy and compassion. In spite of the fact that the term migrant refers, in general, to a person who has changed their habitual residence, the meaning acquires other attributes and connotations as we refer to sundry foreigners.
Keywords: migrant, refugee, connotation, semantics, Slovakia.
Jiří Kohoutek: Politický diskurs imigrace v Británii v kampani před Brexitem
Political Discourse of Immigration in Britain in the Brexit Campaign. This study analyzes the conceptualization of imigration from the EU to Britain in the pro-Brexit campaigns. The paradigm change from the concept of free movement of persons to immigration was very important. Such immigration was then conceptualized as unfair, dangerous, out-of-control, with a negative effect on social conditions of certain voters as well as on the social and welfare system of the United Kingdom.
Keywords: Migration, Brexit, Britain, Campaign, Political Communication.
Martin Kovanič – Michaela Šebíková: Populismus a nouzový stav: Analýza parlamentních rozprav v Poslanecké sněmovně Parlamentu České republiky
Populism and the State of Emergency: An Analysis of Parliamentary Debates in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The COVID-19 pandemic is not only public health crisis, but also a social and political crisis, and its management therefore poses a challenge to democratic governance. Crisis management represents a specific challenge for populist actors, who draw their legitimacy from the "will of the people" and strive for high responsiveness, which was under test in the COVID-19 crisis management in the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the political party ANO, a representative of technocratic populism, performatively constructed the crisis, and how they worked with the categories "people", "culprit" and "expertise." The research is based on a discursive analysis of parliamentary debates on the adoption and extensions of the state of emergency in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
Keywords: COVID-19, ANO, state of emergency, parliamentary debates, technocratic populism, Czech republic.
Irina Kozárová: Protikladné aspekty globalizácie v jazykovom vyjadrení: k sémantike opozitných dvojíc anglických slovných spojení obsahujúcich slovo globalization
Contrary Aspects of Globalization in the Language Expression: To the Semantics of Opposite Pairs of English Phrases Containing the Word Globalization. The paper deals with opposite pairs of English phrases containing the word globalization. It aims at identifying such phrases in English language, clarifying their meaning and finding out what aspects of globalization are named by them. The analytical-syntactic and comparative methods are applied to process the data from various databases and corpora. The author identified five opposite pairs of phrases which were coined to name the fact that globalization is driven by various actors having different positions in the hierarchy of economic and political power, there is a difference between the reality and visions of globalization, there existed various developmental stages of globalization in terms of its geographical scope or different forms of globalization regarding the position of a nation-state in the globalization process.
Keywords: globalization, paradigmatic relations, oppositeness, binary opposites.
Linda Krajčovičová: Metafora rodiny ako prostriedok modelovania brexitu v ruských mediálnych textoch
Metaphor of Family as a Means of the Metaphorical Modeling of Brexit in Russian Media Texts. This article deals with the analysis of the metaphor of family as a means of the metaphorical modeling of Brexit in the Russian media discourse and political discourse with an emphasis on its potential conflictogenic effects and the intentions of its use. The analysis is carried out at the interface of cognitive linguistics, media linguistics, political linguistics, and linguistics and cultural studies. The interdisciplinary nature of the analysis contributes to a deeper understanding of the contemporary Russian linguistic picture of the world.
Keywords: metaphor of family, Brexit, political discourse, media discourse, cognitive linguistics.
Jana Kucharová – Ingrid Kunovská: Význam ústneho prejavu v oblasti politiky a diplomacie
The Importance of Speaking in Politics and Diplomacy. The aim of the paper is to point out some aspects influencing oral expression and the expression in the field of politics and diplomacy. Within this comprehensive topic, the paper focuses on some specifics of oral expression, the development of productive communication language speaking skills and the importance of non-verbal communication, which can also significantly affect the correct interpretation of the communicated content. These aspects play an important role in the field of politics and diplomacy, where oral presentation is a medium for formulating opinions and attitudes on important topics in society, or e.g. business negotiations.
Keywords: oral expression, communication language skills, specifics of oral expression, development of speaking skills, non-verbal communication.
Jana Lauková – Eva Molnárová: Koronaslová v nemeckom, rakúskom a švajčiarskom masmediálnom diskurze (júl – december 2020)
Corona-Words in German, Austrian and Swiss Mass Media Discourse (July – December 2020). In the present paper, we follow up on partial micro-research concerning the issue of so-called linguistic xenisms as a strategic concept with the predicated symptom of foreignness, from the perspective of xenolinguistics. In the present context, the focus of our interest is oriented towards the linguistic grasp of emerging vocabulary in German, Austrian and Swiss media discourse. Our research includes a comparative aspect, due to the fact that we focus on selected German, Austrian and Swiss periodicals during the period of the coronavirus crisis (from July to December 2020) and the analysis of some selected corona-words in the mentioned political discourse.
Keywords: corona-words, linguistic xenism, German, Austrian and Swiss mass media discourse, analysis.
Lizaveta Madej: Špecifiká diplomatického tlmočenia v staroveku
Diplomatic Interpreting Specifics in Ancient Times. The basic characteristics of ancient diplomatic interpretation features are presented in the article, including the content of work of official interpreters of that time and their social status. Inherited characteristics of diplomatic interpretation maintained within this type of interpretation until today are emphasised and analysed based upon the comparison of selected characteristics of diplomatic interpretation at the time and contemporary interpretation.
Keywords: diplomatic interpreting, ancient times, history of interpretation, multifunctionality of ancient interpreter.
Tomas Maier: Jazyk představitelů a novinářů ČSSR v období Pražského jara 1968
The Language of Representatives and Journalists of Czechoslovakia during the Prague Spring 1968. The article deals with changes in the language of the representatives of the socialist state and with the new way of expression of progressive journalists during the Prague Spring 1968 from a selected sample of speeches, documents, reports, and comments of the Rudé právo, the newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The author compares the political terms, collocations, and idioms from various speeches, documents, interviews, and comments with the common language used in previous periods.
Keywords: language, politics, speeches, documents, newspapers Rudé právo, Prague spring.
Eva Maierová: Slogany a politická korektnosť v čase koronakrízy
Slogans and Political Correctness in the Times of the Corona Crisis. The article draws attention to two aspects that have become part of the language used during the pandemic of COVID-19, namely slogans and political correctness. It introduces examples of slogans and politically correct vocabulary in Slovak and analyzes them based on the initial theoretical fundaments set by these terms and their characteristic features. The comparison with slogans in English, especially in the United Kingdom, is also provided.
Keywords: slogan, political correctness, corona crisis, political discourse.
Hanna Melehanych – Antonina Bulyna: Literature and Politics in the Context of Democratic Transformations in Independent Ukraine
The quality of people’s lives depends on politics institutions’ authorities pursue at different levels. Notwithstanding the fact that Ukraine is an independent state, democratic processes taking place within the Ukrainian society can hardly be called smooth and transparent. Literature, particularly, sheds light on challenges of the times though not always explicitly. Connections can be traced between literature and human prosperity which is impossible either without people hearing each other because this leads to a genuine civic conversation. It is under these conditions that democracy is enabled. Values of civil society are promoted through empathy, considered the building-block of social justice, whose lack causes the aggravation of marginalization. Empathy is exercised through reading which amplifies liberal democracy. The paper endeavours to show that literature itself and the situation with literature are the indicators of the effectiveness of democratic processes. It is presupposed that society is still in trouble due to the current tendency concerning literature. However, there have already been positive trends in recent years in Ukraine and we will also be dealing with them here.
Keywords: literature, politics, independence, freedom, democracy, marginalization, writers.
Karin Miklossiová: Pauza ako doména plánovania a percepcie politického pre-javu – teoretická príprava na ďalší empirický výskum
This article aims to dive into the research of pause as a domain for planning and perception of a political speech. We are of an opinion that pause may play an integral part of our understanding of a speech and may even influence the meaning of an uttered speech. This is a theoretical preparation and analysis of existing theories and definitions of pause and its related phenomena, designed to be used for our subsequent empirical research.
Keywords: pause, perception, political speech, linguistic, intonation.
Nina Mocková: Konotácie zelenej farby v slovenskom politickom jazyku
Green Colour and its Connotations in Slovak Political Language. The aim of the present paper is to find out the connotation of green colour in Slovak political language and political context. At the same time, it focuses on the frequency of usage of such language units to find out the most frequent ones. The paper is focused only on idiomatic collocations, i. e., at least one of the components must have lost its literal meaning..
Keywords: green, Slovak, language, politics, ecology.
Katarína Motyková: Frame a Framing – základné pojmy a teoretické východiská
Frame and Framing – Concepts and Theoretical Background. The aim of the paper is to explain the concepts of frame and framing and their placement in the broader interdisciplinary context within cognitive linguistics and discourse semantics, as well as sociology and communication sciences. The applicability of the theoretical basis is illustrated by examples from the Swedish political and media space.
Keywords: frame, framing, re-framing, text, Sweden.
Stanislava Moyšová: Cenzúra v prekladovej literatúre: jej podoby v minulosti a v súčasnosti
Censorship in Translated Literary Works and its Forms. Censorship and literature have a long common history. Although it is universally thought that censorship is abundant only in totalitarian or nominally democratic regimes, some examples show that censorship or self-censorship is present also in contemporary democratic regimes. This article aims at censorship processes applied in the past in communist countries and at present in Europe, in the field of translated fiction..
Keywords: censorship, self-censorship, literary fiction, translators, publishing houses.
Eva Niklesová: Reflexe dobových neetických, manipulativních, agitačních a propagandistických metod v česko¬slovenském týdeníku Přítomnost (se zaměřením na období 1924–1939)
Reflections of Contemporary Unethical, Manipulative, Agitation and Propaganda Methods in the Czechoslovak Weekly Přítomnost (With a Focus on the Period 1924–1939). The study deals with the reflection of articles published in the Czechoslovak weekly Přítomnost (Presence), in the interwar period, in which contemporary unethical, manipulative, agitation and propaganda strategies are themed. The first part is focused on the analysis of texts in which the subject of criticism is stenciled expression, schematicity, emptiness of content and unethical journalistic methods. In the next two sections, we focus on articles, on language as a manipulative tool and on the reflections on the methods of (especially) Nazi propaganda.
Keywords: československý týdeník Přítomnost, meziválečná publicistika, jazyková manipulace, propaganda, bulvarizace.
Terézia Ondrušová: Jazyková politika Európskej únie po brexite
Language Policy of the European Union after Brexit. In the European Union, after Brexit, a linguistic situation has arisen which has no precedent in modern history. The country in which the English language originates has left the European Union. At the same time, the European Union is a multinational, multiethnic and multilingual grouping of states that is linguistically guided by the principle of multilingualism. The principle of multilingualism is more or less maintained at a theoretical level. It is interesting to observe how the Member States react to the role played by English after the United Kingdom left.
Keywords: language policy, European Union, brexit.
Magdaléna Paté: Merkelová versus Macron – reč politikov v televíznych príhovoroch v čase pandémie koronavírusu
Merkel vs Macron – Politicians' Language in Televised Addresses in the Corona Pandemic Period. The crisis communication in the pandemic period has changed also the political language. Top politicians tried to persuade people to comply with strict measures in televised addresses. The aim of the paper is to analyse the language in the two addresses of A. Merkel and E. Macron held in March 2020. The paper focuses on the argumentative structure and communicative strategies in the addresses. There are some differences visible in the concrete linguistic realisation of the addresses by the same occasion and goal.
Keywords: televízny príhovor, E. Macron, A. Merkelová. pandémia koronavírusu, argumentácia.
Žaneta Pavlíková: Metaphorised Politics – Politicised Metaphor
The paper deals with the political discourse and metaphors used in it. The political discourse, its definition, and its analysis have been the centre of interest of linguists and researchers for decades. Language used in political discourse can be sometimes very vivid and interwoven with a number of items of figurative language. This paper concentrates on metaphors and conceptual metaphors in chosen political speeches of Slovak presidents. An analysis of their annual reports on the state of the country reveals some commonly used metaphors.
Keywords: figurative language, metaphor, conceptual metaphor, political discourse.
Ivan Posokhin: Stratégie nominácie politických oponentov v bieloruských provládnych a opozičných Telegram-kanáloch
Strategies of Nominating Political Opponents in Belarusian Pro-Regime and Pro-Opposition Telegram channels. The following paper studies several basic strategies of nomination present in the content published by ideologically opposing Belarusian Telegram channels Nexta, Nick i Mike, and Zholtyye SLIVY. It is shown that both sides tend to use similar strategies, such as somatization, social problematization, dehumanization and refer to a number of Belarusian contexts which provide the word-forming basis for realisation of these strategies.
Keywords: Belarus, nomination, discourse, Telegram, Lukashenko.
Miroslav Řádek – Pavol Struhár: Jazyková analýza antisemitskej propagandy prvej Slovenskej republiky
Linguistic Analysis of Anti-Semitic Propaganda of the First Slovak Republic. According to several theoretical approaches, totalitarian states are characterized by extensive, targeted and professional use of propaganda. This is a phenomenon that is identifiable even in democratic states, but unlike totalitarian states, the public has the opportunity to control it and at the same time it has a materially different focus. The first Slovak Republic was established during the international crisis caused by Nazi Germany, and its undemocratic functioning can also be assessed in terms of the extent and quality of political propaganda. The aim of the presented paper is to present political propaganda against the most important goal of the aggressive policy of the Slovak Republic - the Jewish population and to try to evaluate its quality through a content analysis of articles in archived periodicals.
Keywords: antisemitism, periodical press, the Slovak Republic, HSĽS, propaganda, censorship.
Jarmila Rusiňáková: Neverbálna komunikácia v diplomatickej praxi
Nonverbal Communication in Diplomatic Practice. The aim of the presented article is to analyse nonverbal communication in diplomatic practice as a specific form of the professional communication. By means of the empirical form of research the author presents various ways of diplomatic signalling as part of nonverbal communication in a relatively close professional community and offers an analysis of the interdependence between verbal and nonverbal communication in diplomatic discourse. The importance of correct decoding of diplomatic signals sent verbally as well as nonverbally is emphasized.
Keywords: diplomatic discourse, diplomatic signalling, nonverbal communication, verbal communication.
Katarína Seresová: Metafora vojny v ére pandémie COVID-19
The Metaphor of War in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic. This paper focuses on the issue of metaphor in the language of contemporary political leaders at the time of the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic. The author examines and analyses the statements of Slovak media and Slovak politicians who often use the metaphor of war, struggle or weapons in their speeches and comments on the current situation in connection with the Covid-19 pandemic.
Keywords: metaphor, political language, war, Covid-19 pandemic.
Terézia Seresová: Emigrácia ruského obyvateľstva v ruskom vedeckom diskurze
Emigration of Russian Population in the Russian Scientific Discourse. The article deals with the issue of Russian emigration after the collapse of the Soviet Union until 2018 from the perspective of Russian scientists. With the help of discourse analysis, it presents the situation of Russian emigration, government documents and conclusions prepared by the Russian side. In the first part, the article deals with government documents and analyzes them. The second part describes the emigration of highly qualified workers - brain drain. The third part analyzes the emigration of the young population. The aim of the article was to approach the issue of Russian emigration, to confirm or refute whether the Russian scientific community relevantly points to the state of emigration.
Keywords: russian emigration, brain drain, young emigrants, Russian federation.
Jozef Sipko: Vakcína sputnik v a protiruské asociácie
Sputnik V Vaccine and Anti-Russian Associations. For a very long time one of the phenomena of the present-day pandemic has been the evaluation of individual vaccines. The attention of the society was especially focused on the Russian vaccine Sputnik V, especially when its use in Slovakia was being considered. People with absolute anti-Russian tendencies have entered the scene. It went as far as one government member pronouncing Sputnik V to be a means of Russian hybrid warfare. Intense anti-Russian tendencies could be seen in ‘Sme’ newspaper, which at times published as many as 4-5 anti-Russian articles in a single printout. The author of this study focuses his attention on the above-mentioned Russophobic tendencies that can be seen in a wide variety of situations and contexts. It went so far, that Slovakia witnessed a government crisis which at times took parodic tendencies. Furthermore, the representatives of these intense anti-Russian tendencies were especially strong when the government issued an official statement allowing the vaccination with Sputnik V. The study mentions such tendencies as documented by a wide variety of examples..
Keywords: Sputnik V, Russian phobia, Hybrid warfare, government crises, politics, mass media, bias.
Josef Smolík: Politika a symboly: politické symboly?
Politics and Symbols: Political Symbols? This article will discuss the relationship between politics and widely used political symbols. The text will focus on symbols that are associated with the far right and the far left. A discussion will be presented on the lists of individual political symbols that are associated with these political currents and specific ideologies. Political ideologies are also a place for clashes between particular symbols which represent these ideologies. The text shows that symbols must be understood in several meanings or situational and historical contexts. Nevertheless, symbolism is an important element of propaganda as well as communication strategies for both the far right and the far left.
Keywords: symbols, communication, totalitarian ideologies, mass media.
Mária Spišiaková: Nová slovná zásoba v španielskych médiách v súvislosti s koronavírusom
New Coronavirus Vocabulary in the Spanish Media. The paper focuses on new words, phrases, expressions, figurative names in Spanish that have been created and used in the media in the context of the pandemic caused by the coronavirus. The extracted lexical units are analysed in terms of their form, content and origin. According to the typology of neologisms by Spanish linguist Otaola Olano and Slovak linguists Orgóňová, Bohunická, they are classified into groups. The aim of the paper is to point out the actual word-formation procedures of neologisms formation and to find out which forms of neologisms and which word-formation procedures are the most used in this case.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID, crisis, neologism, word-formation procedure.
Eva Stradiotová: Jazyk slovenských politikov na sociálnych sieťach
The Language of Slovak Politicians on Social Networks. The introduction of the Internet and especially its expansion has contributed to the expansion and popularization of Internet-mediated communication. Internet-mediated communication has gained millions of supporters from a variety of sociolinguistic backgrounds. The benefits of this type of communication have also been noticed by politicians, who are increasingly using social networks to popularise their views. The advantage of social media is that they allow dialogue between politicians and citizens. Social media can be also used to inform citizens of the latest public affairs. We decided to analyse some of the statements of populist politicians (such as Matovič, Pellegrini, Blaha, and Kollár), who are known for using Facebook as a medium to convey their opinions to influence public opinion.
Keywords: facebook, populism, political discourse, social network, politics, Slovakia.
Radoslav Štefančík - Ján Liďák: Metaphor in the Anti-Immigration Rhetoric of the Slovak Far Right
The political discourse on international migration does not have a long tradition in Slovakia. Its beginnings can be dated back to 2015. However, the Slovak far right has articulated this topic much earlier. In the article, we offer an answer to the question of what categories of metaphors the representatives of the far right in Slovakia use when they articulate the topic of international migration. The text is based on the assumption that due to the extremely negative approach of the Slovak far-right to migrants, politicians will use means of expression with a negative connotation. Based on the analysis, it can be stated that the representatives of the Slovak far-right populism often use metaphors such as water, enemy, nouns denoting animals, and metaphors expressing burden. On the contrary, Slovak politicians use much less the metaphor of the guest and the metaphor of the commodity.
Keywords: migration, discourse, metaphor, Slovakia, far-right populism.
Lucia Šukolová: Angličtina ako lingua franca v Európskej únii po brexite
English as a Lingua Franca in the European Union after Brexit. The paper focuses on the position of the English language and its importance in the world and in the European Union after Brexit. The aim is not to predict the sustainability of English language dominance in the EU after Brexit, but to point out some of the facts and reasons that make English in the world and in the EU lingua franca. The 21st century is characterized by global communication. The world has become an interconnected global system that requires a shared means of communication. English meets the need for a global lingua franca. However, once a language is adopted by new communities, they will adapt it to their specific needs. As a result, English is changing. It is mostly caused by its non-native speakers. An example is Euro-English or European English used in the EU.
Keywords: European Union, English as a lingua franca (ELF), English as a lingua franca in the EU (ELFE), English as a foreign language (EFL).
Gabriela Turisová: Jazykový obraz osobnosti J. V. Stalina na materiáli sovietskych novín Izvestia z roku 1945
Linguistic Image of J. V. Stalin on the Material of the Soviet Newspaper Izvestia from 1945. Language serves not only as a carrier of meaning and a means of communication, but mainly as a linguistic and cultural phenomenon. The study examines and analyzes the precedent name of Stalin, which speaks about the mentioned linguistic values on the basis of acquired linguistic, historical and cognitive knowledge. We pay attention to stable lexical units that have played and continue to play an important ideological role in Soviet media discourse. Our goal is to find out what positive ideological lexical resources were presented in the Soviet newspaper Izvestia by the precedent name Stalin after World War II, when the cult of Stalin was perceived most positively in society. Collected lexical units from the Soviet newspaper Izvestia confirm the positive ideological perception of Stalin on the basis of created metaphors and paraphrases with emotional-positive semantics, which developed and reinforced the positive perception and promotion of the cult of Stalin's personality.
Keywords: language identity, Stalin, precedent name, soviet newspapers Izvestia, cult of personality, ideology.
Sofia Tužinská: Prototyp diktátora v románe Patriarchova jeseň
The Prototype of the Dictator in the Novel The Autumn of the Patriarch. TThe theme of dictatorship in the Latin American novel of the 20th century is very frequent and appears in the novels of many renowned writers, such as G. G. Márquez, A.Carpentier, M. Á. Asturias, Roa Bastos, etc. The Autumn of the Patriarch is one of the key novels of the Colombian author G. G. Márquez. It offers a detailed portrait of the character of a prototypical Latin American dictator, but this portrait is made spatial as the author emphasizes the stage of his old age and we can learn about the most intimate fears of the most powerful person in the country: fear of death, losing absolute power, loneliness, inability to love, etc.
Keywords: Latin American novel, dictator, Márquez, The Autumn of the Patriarch, society.
Marina Vazanova: T and V Forms of Address Used in Russian Political Discourse
This article discusses speech etiquette as used by politicians when addressing each other in public and the reasons they choose specific forms of address. The relevance of Russian V forms of address as an indicator of the formal (official) style of communication is discussed. The article emphasizes the fact that non-compliance with the norms of their use can cause misunderstanding or failures of communication. It is shown that deviations from etiquette forms of address by politicians, on the one hand may be accepted if they are an indicator of their special, close relations. Conversely, they may be condemned, since they are perceived as a violation of the principle of politeness.
Keywords: political discourse, T (ты) and V (Вы) forms of address, speech etiquette, Russian politicians.